Revisiting Factors that Influence Length of Stay and Wound Infection after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Background: Diabetes is common among patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). This study aims to revisit the predictive significance of diabetes, elevated HbA1c, low serum albumin levels, and gender on wound infection and hospital stay after CABG.
Methods: This retrospective study included patients who had CABG from June 2019 to March 2020. We included patients who underwent elective CABG and excluded emergency CABG surgeries and combined surgeries. Elevated HbA1c is defined as an HbA1c level above 5.8%, and the normal range for serum albumin level is at 33-54 gm/L
Results: A total of 87 patients were included, 81 males (93%) and six females (7%) with a mean age of 58 ± 8.5 years. Sixt-eight patients (78%) had diabetes mellitus Type 2 (D.M.). Mean Hb1Ac level was at 8.3 ± 1.8 %; mean preoperative serum albumin level was 34.7 ± 3.3 gm/L, mean postoperative serum albumin level was 16± 0.37 gm/L; preoperative EF of <50% (31%), 50-55% (14%) and >55% (55%). Mean hospital length of stay was 8.3±10.1 days, mean bypass duration was 110.9±35.4 minutes, the mean number of grafts was 3.15±.829; 98% of patients had LIMA to L.A.D. Female gender was a significant predictor of length of stay (coefficient: 4.38 (1.63- 7.13); P= 0.002) and postoperative wound infection (OR: 38.5 (5.35- 276.80); P<0.001).
Conclusion: Females could be associated with increased length of stay and wound infection after CABG. Identifying factors that influence the length of stay and wound infections could facilitate recovery and reduce complications.