Management of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients undergoing open-heart surgery
Background: There are scarce studies on the management of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients during cardiac surgery. The purposes of this retrospective study were to present and evaluate our experience with G6PD deficient patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
Methods: We included 20 patients with G6PD deficiency who had cardiac surgeries from 2015 to 2019. We used free radical scavenging strategy and careful perioperative management. The patients were compared to a control group of 20 patients with normal G6PD enzyme activity who underwent the same type of operations in the same period.
Results: Males represented 80% of G6PD deficient patients. There were significant elevations in preoperative total bilirubin (1.03±0.33 vs. 0.57±0.11 mg/dl, p< 0.001) and reticulocytes (1.87±0.62 vs. 0.54±0.18%) in G6PD deficient patients. Valve surgery was done for 60% of G6PD deficient patients. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding the type of surgery, aortic cross-clamp, CPB, and total operative time. G6PD deficient patients had significantly lower postoperative hemoglobin levels (9.44±0.94 vs. 10.0±0.59 g/dl, p= 0.04) and significantly higher postoperative total bilirubin (1.51±0.51 vs. 0.98±0.45 mg/dl; p=0.002) and reticulocytes (1.85±0.51 vs. 0.57±0.13%; p< 0.001). There was no significant difference regarding postoperative urea and creatinine levels. Ventilation time (10.3±2.7 vs. 8.2±1.9 hours; p=0.01), ICU stay (3.1±0.87 vs. 2.3±0.71 days; p=0.004), and hospital stay (3.1±0.87 vs. 6.0±1.02 days; p<0.001) significantly increased in G6PD deficient patients. The mortality rate was 5% (one patient) in G6PD deficient patients.
Conclusion: Despite the management strategy, G6PD deficient patients undergoing cardiac surgery are more liable to hemolysis and hypoxia with more need for blood transfusion and longer ventilation time, ICU, and hospital stays when compared to patients with normal G6PD enzyme activity. Further research to improve the outcomes in G6PD deficient patients is required.