Diaphragmatic Plication for Acquired Phrenic Nerve Injury after Congenital Cardiac Surgeries
Background: Phrenic nerve injury and diaphragmatic dysfunction are common after pediatric cardiac surgery leading to failure to wean from ventilatory support. Diaphragmatic plication is the standard management of diaphragmatic paralysis. The aim of this retrospective study is to review our experience with diaphragmatic plication and its effect on the operative outcome.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent diaphragmatic plication from June 2010 to June 2017. Seventy-six patients (2.87%) had unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following 2646 congenital cardiac procedures. Sixty-four patients (2.4%) underwent diaphragmatic plication.
Results: The median age for the patients who had plication was 2.75 months (range 0.5- 36) and 3.7 months (range 0.66 to 123) for non-plicated patients. Thirty-six were males (56.25%), and the most common procedure associated with diaphragmatic plication was modified Blalock Taussig Shunt (n= 13; 20.3%). Left-sided diaphragmatic plication was performed in 44 patients (68.7%). The mean time between the primary surgery and diaphragm plication was 6.42±4.51 days. The mean ventilation period before plication was 4.93±3.71 days, and post plication ventilation median time was 2.11±1.82 days. Two patients (3.1%) required tracheostomy for prolonged respiratory insufficiency. One patient (1.6%) needed surgical revision, and two patients (3.1%) had their diaphragmatic plication during the initial surgery.
Conclusion: Diaphragmatic plication is an effective procedure in the management of postoperative diaphragmatic paralysis. We recommend early plication for patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic paralysis causing prolonged ventilation